Battery Terminology

Accumulator – A rechargeable battery or cell (see also Secondary battery).

Alkaline – A primary battery (non-rechargeable) often used in electronics applications requiring heavy currents for long periods of time (i.e. radios, etc.). Alkaline batteries can deliver 50-100% more total energy than conventional Carbon/Zinc batteries of the same size.

Ampere or Amp – An Ampere or an Amp is a unit of measurement for an electrical current. One amp is the amount of current produced by an electromotive force of one volt acting through the resistance of one ohm. Named for the French physicist Andre Marie Ampere. The abbreviation for Amp is A but its mathematical symbol is “I”. Small currents are measured in milli-Amps or thousandths of an Amp.

Amp Hour or Ampere-Hour – A unit of measurement of a battery’s electrical storage capacity. Current multiplied by time in hours equals ampere-hours. One-amp hour is equal to a current of one ampere flowing for one hour. Also, 1-amp hour is equal to 1,000 mAh. (Example: A battery that delivers 5 amperes for 20 hours delivers 5 amperes x 20 hours = 100 amp-hrs of capacity.)

Ampere-Hour Capacity – The number of ampere-hours which can be delivered by a battery on a single discharge.

Anode – During discharge, the negative electrode of the cell is the anode. During charge, that reverses, and the positive electrode of the cell is the anode. The anode gives up electrons to the load circuit and dissolves into the electrolyte.

Aqueous Batteries – Batteries with water-based electrolytes. The electrolyte may not appear to be liquid since it can be absorbed by the battery’s separator.

Actual Capacity or Available Capacity – The total battery capacity, usually expressed in ampere-hours or milliampere-hours, available to perform work. The actual capacity of a battery is determined by several factors, including the cut-off voltage, discharge rate, temperature, method of charge and the age and life history of the battery.

Battery – An electrochemical device used to store energy. The term is usually applied to a group of two or more electric cells connected electrically. In common usage, the term “battery” is also applied to a single cell, such as a AA battery.

Battery Capacity – The electric output of a cell or battery on a service test delivered before the cell reaches a specified final electrical condition and may be expressed in ampere-hours, watt- hours, or similar units. The capacity in watt-hours is equal to the capacity in ampere-hours multiplied by the battery voltage.

Battery Charger – A device capable of supplying electrical energy to a battery.

Battery-Charge Rate – The current expressed in amperes (A) or milli amps (mA) at which a battery is charged.

Battery Pack – Two or more electrochemical cells electrically interconnected in an appropriate series/parallel arrangement to provide the required operating voltage and current levels. Under common usage, the term “battery” is often also applied to a single cell.

BCI Group – The Battery Council International (BCI) Group Number “fingerprints” a battery with the following characteristics: (a) dimensions (L x W x H), (b) voltage (6V or 12V), (c) polarity (right-hand front positive, left-hand front positive, etc.), (d) type terminals (top, side, “L”, etc.). The BCI Group Number does not designate a battery’s capacity; it merely defines the above-listed physical characteristics.

Button Cell – a battery cell with overall height less than its diameter. Button cells are manufactured with circular disc electrodes that are separated with a separator sheet

C-Rate (C) (also see Hourly Rate) – Discharge or charge current, in amperes, expressed in multiples of the rated capacity. For example, C/10 discharge current for a battery rated at 1.5 Ah is: 1.5 AH/I 0 = 150 mA (A cell’s capacity is not the same at all discharge rates and usually increases with decreasing rate.)

Cadmium – Chemical symbol: Cd. This metallic element is the chemically active material of the Nickel-cadmium battery’s negative electrode. When the battery is charged, the negative electrode surface consists of cadmium. As the battery discharges, the cadmium progressively changes into cadmium hydroxide (CdOH2).

Capacity – The capacity of a battery is a measure of the amount of energy that it can deliver in a single discharge. Battery capacity is normally listed as amp-hours (or milli amp-hours) or as watt-hours.

Cutoff Voltage, final – The prescribed lower-limit voltage at which battery discharge is considered complete. The cutoff or final voltage is usually chosen so that the maximum useful capacity of the battery is realized. The cutoff voltage varies with the type of battery and the kind of service in which the battery is used. When testing the capacity of a NiMH or NiCad battery a cutoff voltage of 1.0 V is normally used. 0.9V is normally used as the cutoff voltage of an alkaline cell. A device that is designed with too high a cutoff voltage may stop operating while the battery still has significant capacity remaining.

Carbon/Zinc – A primary battery (non-rechargeable) commonly used in low drain consumer applications (i.e.: clocks, calculators, garage door openers, etc.). Available in the same sizes as Alkaline and Manganese Dioxide (“AA”, “AAA”, 9volt, “C”, “D”) the Carbon/Zinc is one of the most widely used dry primary batteries because of its low cost and reliable performance.

Cathode – an electrode that oxidizes the anode or absorbs electrons. During discharge, the positive electrode of a voltaic cell is the cathode. When charging, that reverses, and the negative electrode of the cell is the cathode.

Cell – An electrochemical device, composed of positive and negative plates and electrolyte, which can store electrical energy. It is the basic “building block” of a battery.

CCA: (Cold Cranking Amps) – is a rating used in the battery industry to define a battery’s ability to start an engine in cold temperatures. A great number of amperes is needed to start the engine, but only for a short time. The actual rating is the number of amps that can be removed from a new fully charged battery at 0°F for 30 seconds while maintaining a voltage of at least 7.2 volts (for a 12-volt battery).As a battery ages with use, it may no longer be able to meet its original CCA rating. The higher the CCA rating, the greater the starting power of the battery.

Charge – The conversion of electric energy, provided in the form of a current, into chemical energy within the cell or battery.

Charge Acceptance – The quantity of current in ampere-hours which a battery in a defined charge state can accept at a specified temperature and charge voltage within a defined period.

Charge Rate – The amount of current applied to battery during the charging process. This rate is commonly expressed as a fraction of the capacity of the battery. For example, the C/2 or C/5.

Charge Retention – Residual capacity after a period of storage of a fully charged battery.

Charging – The process of supplying electrical energy for conversion to stored chemical energy.

Circuit – An electrical circuit is the path followed by a flow of electrons. A closed circuit is a complete path. An open circuit has a broken, or disconnected, path.

Circuit (Parallel) – A circuit that provides more than one path for the flow of current. A parallel arrangement of batteries (usually of like voltages and capacities) has all positive terminals connected to a conductor and all negative terminals connected to another conductor. If two 12-volt batteries of 50 ampere-hour capacity each are connected in parallel, the circuit voltage is 12 volts, and the ampere-hour capacity of the combination is 100 ampere-hours.

Circuit (Series) – A circuit that has only one path for the flow of current. Batteries arranged in series relate to negative of the first to positive of the second, negative of the second to positive of the third, etc. If two 12-volt batteries of 50 ampere-hours capacity each are connected in series, the circuit voltage is equal to the sum of the two battery voltages, or 24 volts, and the ampere-hour capacity of the combination is 50 ampere-hours.

Cold-cranking Amps (CCA) – Number of amperes a lead-acid battery at 0oF (-17.8oC) can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell.

Condition – A process that utilizes a series of heavy discharges and recharges on a battery to assure optimum performance.

Constant-Current Charge – A charging process in which the current applied to the battery is maintained at a constant value.

Constant-Voltage Charge – A charging process in which the voltage applied to a battery is held at a constant value.

Corrosion – The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces deterioration of the material and its properties. The positive lead grids in a battery gradually corrode in service, often leading to a battery failure. Battery terminals are subject to corrosion if they are not properly maintained.

Coulomb – A unit to measure the in-going charge and out-going discharge current of a battery. A coulomb is equal to the electricity transferred by a current of one ampere in one second. (The maximum energy a molecular weight of a chemical system can deliver is one Faraday of energy or 96,500 coulombs which is the equivalent of 26.8Ah of capacity.

Current (Alternating) (AC) – A current that varies periodically in magnitude and direction. A battery does not deliver alternating current.

Current (Direct) (DC) – An electrical current flowing in an electrical circuit in one direction only. A secondary battery delivers direct current and must be recharged with direct current in the opposite direction of the discharge. One terminal is always positive, and the other is always negative.

Current – The rate of flow of electricity, or the movement of electrons along a conductor. It is comparable to the flow of a stream of water. The unit of measure for current is the ampere.

Cutoff Voltage – The battery voltage at which the discharge is terminated. The cutoff voltage is specified by the battery manufacturer and is generally a function of discharge rate.

Cutoff Voltage, final – The prescribed lower-limit voltage at which battery discharge is considered complete. The cutoff or final voltage is usually chosen so that the maximum useful capacity of the battery is realized. The cutoff voltage varies with the type of battery and the kind of service in which the battery is used. When testing the capacity of a NiMH or NiCad battery a cutoff voltage of 1.0 V is normally used. 0.9V is normally used as the cutoff voltage of an alkaline cell. A device that is designed with too high a cutoff voltage may stop operating while the battery still has significant capacity remaining.

Cycle – One sequence of charge and discharge.

Cycle Life – For rechargeable batteries, the total number of charge/discharges the cell can sustain before its capacity is significantly reduced. End of life is usually considered to be reached when the cell or battery delivers only 80% of rated ampere- hour capacity. NiMH batteries typically have a cycle life of 500 cycles, NiCad batteries can have a cycle life of over 1,000 cycles. The cycle of a battery is greatly influenced by the type depth of the cycle (deep or shallow) and the method of recharging. Improper charge cycle cutoff can greatly reduce the cycle life of a battery.

Deep Cycle – A cycle in which the discharge is continued until the battery reaches its cut-off voltage, usually 80% of discharge.

Deep Cycling – Application in which the cell or battery is successively and repeatedly charged, then completely and fully discharged.

Direct Current (DC) – Type of electrical current battery supply. One terminal is always positive, and the other negative.

Discharge – The conversion of the chemical energy of the battery into electric energy.

Depth of Discharge – The amount of energy removed from a battery (or battery pack) relative to a full charge. Usually expressed as a percentage of total battery capacity. For example, 50% depth of discharge means half of stored energy is exhausted. 80% DOD means eighty percent of the energy is discharged.

Digital Devices – Unlike analog equipment that draws a predictable and steady current, digital devices load the battery with short, high current bursts. … The lower the resistance, the less restriction the battery encounters in delivering the needed power bursts.

Discharge, deep – Withdrawal of all electrical energy to the end-point voltage before the cell or battery is recharged.

Discharge, high-rate – Withdrawal of large currents for short intervals of time, usually at a rate that would completely discharge a cell or battery in less than one hour.

Discharge, low-rate – Withdrawal of small currents for long periods of time, usually longer than one hour.

Drain – Withdrawal of current from a cell.

Dry Cell – A primary cell in which the electrolyte is absorbed in a porous medium or is otherwise restrained from flowing. Common practice limits the term “dry cell” to the Leclanché cell, which is the common commercial type.

Duty Cycle – The operating regime of a battery including factors such as charge and discharge rates, depth of discharge, cycle duration, and length of time in the standby mode.

Electrochemical Couple – The system of active materials within a cell that provides electrical energy storage through an electrochemical reaction.

Electrode – An electrical conductor through which an electric current enters or leaves a conducting medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum. For electrolytic solutions, many solids, and molten masses, an electrode is an electrical conductor at the surface of which a change occurs from conduction by electrons to conduction by ions. For gases and vacuum, the electrodes merely serve to conduct electricity to and from the medium.

Electrolyte – A chemical compound which, when fused or dissolved in certain solvents, usually water, will conduct an electric current. All electrolytes in the fused state or in solution give rise to ions which conduct the electric current.

Electropositivity – The degree to which an element in a galvanic cell will function as the positive element of the cell. An element with a large electro positivity will oxidize faster than an element with a smaller electropositivity.

End-of-Discharge Voltage – The voltage of the battery at termination of a discharge.

Energy – Product of the battery’s or cell’s voltage, discharge rate, and discharge time. Usually expressed in milli-Watt hours (mWhr) or mWhr = V x mA x hrs

Energy Density – Ratio of cell energy to weight or volume (watt-hours per pound, or watt-hours per cubic inch).

Equalization Charge – The process of ensuring that the cells and plates within a battery are all at full charge and that the electrolyte is uniform and free of stratification. This is normally done by charging the battery under controlled conditions (charge current, time and upper voltage limits are usually specified).

Fast Charge -Rate of charging a cell or battery to full charge capacity in 2 1/2 hours or less

Float Charging – Method of recharging in which a secondary cell is continuously connected to a constant-voltage supply that maintains the cell in fully charged condition. Typically applied to lead acid batteries.

Formation – In battery manufacturing, formation is the process of charging the battery for the first time. Electrochemically, formation changes the lead oxide paste on the positive grids into lead dioxide and the lead oxide paste on the negative grids into metallic sponge lead.

Galvanic Cell – A combination of electrodes, separated by electrolyte, capable of producing electrical energy by electrochemical action.

Gassing – The evolution of gas from one or both electrodes in a cell. Gassing commonly results from self-discharge or from the electrolysis of water in the electrolyte during charging.

Gel – Electrolyte that has been immobilized by the addition of a chemical agent, normally fine silica, to prevent spillage. Batteries made with gelled electrolyte are often referred to as gel batteries. Gel batteries are one typical type of VRLA battery.

Gravimetric Energy Density – ratio of a battery’s or cell’s energy to its weight. Also called power density. Usually expressed in Watt-Hours per kilogram (Wh/kg)
Hertz (Hz) The standard unit of frequency. A frequency of one complete cycle per second is a frequency of one hertz.

Hour rate – The hour rate is associated with both discharging and charging the battery and is expressed in terms of discharge time at its nominal capacity rating. “H-hou” represents the length of time it takes to discharge a battery, and “i” represents the rate of discharge.

Hydrometer – A device used to measure the strength (i.e., the concentration of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte) of the electrolyte through specific gravity of the electrolyte.

IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission, a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization. Prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic, and related technologies

Impedance Intermittent Test – Used in terms of the battery’s internal resistance a test during which a battery is subjected to alternate periods of discharge and rest according to a specified discharge regime.

Impedance – Used in terms of the battery’s internal resistance.

Internal Resistance – The resistance to the flow of an electric current within the cell or battery.

Lead Acid – Still the most popular battery used today its main application is for the automobile industry, although it has a growing number of other applications. Its advantages are low cost, high voltage per cell and good capacity life. Disadvantages are poor low temperature characteristics, it is relatively heavy, and it cannot be left in a discharged state for too long without being damaged. Related Batteries: Absorbent Glass Matt (AGM) Gel/Gel Cell Sealed Lead Acid

Lead-Acid Battery – Battery made up of plates, lead and lead oxide (various other elements are used to change density, hardness, porosity, etc.) with a 35 percent sulfuric acid and 65 percent water solution. This solution is called an electrolyte, which causes a chemical reaction that produce electrons.

Leakage – The escape of electrolyte to the outer surface of the battery.
Limiting Current – The maximum current drain under which the battery will perform adequately under a continuous drain. The rate is based on whatever drain rate reduces the running voltage to 1.1 volts.

Lithium Ion – advanced chemistry/technology for primary and secondary batteries. Offers increased performance and twice the energy density of nickel-based batteries. There are several major varieties of lithium ion battery technology, each of which has unique properties. Lithium ion secondary batteries can charge to full capacity in as little as 3 hours

Low-Voltage Disconnect (Cutoff) – voltage-sensing device to automatically disconnect a battery or cell from a load at predetermined voltage. Low voltage disconnects prevent cell reversal during discharge.

Maintenance-Free Battery – Battery in which you do not have to check or refill the electrolyte levels.

Manganese Dioxide – A primary battery (non-rechargeable) like that of the alkaline battery though not as strong in total energy. Available in the same size as Alkaline and Carbon/Zinc (“AA”, “AAA”, “C”,”D”, 9volt) the Manganese Dioxide chemistry is noted for its ability to retain its charge while being stored at high temperatures and operates well at temperatures as low as -40C with little loss of capacity.

MCA (Marine) – MCA is an industry rating defining a marine battery’s ability to deliver a large amount of amperage for a short period of time. Since marine batteries are typically never used at temperatures below freezing, marine cranking amps are measured at 32°F as opposed to 0°F for cold cranking amps. The rating is the number of amps that can be removed from a marine battery at 32°F for 30 seconds while maintaining a voltage of at least 7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery. The higher the MCA rating, the greater the starting power of the marine battery.

Memory Effect – A phenomenon in which a cell, operated in successive cycles to less than full, depth of discharge, temporarily loses the remainder of its capacity at normal voltage levels (usually applies only to Ni-Cd cells). Note, memory effect can be induced in NiCad cells even if the level of discharge is not the same during each cycle. Memory effect is reversable.

Negative Electrode – electrode in a battery or cell acting as the anode during discharge. Composed of hydrogen-storing alloys. Also called the minus electrode.

Negative Terminal – The terminal of a battery from which electrons flow in the external circuit when the cell discharges. See Positive Terminal.

Nickel Cadmium – One of the most proven and historically most widely used rechargeable batteries. Very dependable and “robust” but contain cadmium and have relatively low capacity when compared to other rechargeable systems. Very good high rate discharge capabilities make them very popular in high drain applications such as power tools.

Negative Terminal – The terminal of a battery from which electrons flow in the external circuit when the cell discharges. See Positive Terminal.

Nonaqueous Batteries – Cells that do not contain water, such as those with molten salts or organic electrolytes.

Ohm’s Law – The formula describes the amount of current flowing through a circuit. Ohm’s Law – In a given electrical circuit, the amount of current in amperes (I) is equal to the pressure in volts (V) divided by the resistance, in ohms (R). Ohm’s Law can be shown by three different formulas:
To find Current I = V/R
To find Voltage V = I x R
To find Resistance R = V/I

Open Circuit – Condition of a battery which is neither on charge nor on discharge (i.e., disconnected from a circuit).

Open-Circuit Voltage – The difference in potential between the terminals of a cell when the circuit is open (i.e., a no-load condition).

Overcharge -The forcing of current through a cell after all the active material has been converted to the charged state, that is, continued charging after reaching 100 percent state-of-charge.

Oxidation – A chemical reaction that results in the release of electrons by an electrode’s active material.

Parallel Connection – The arrangement of cells in a battery made by connecting all positive terminals together and all negative terminals together. The voltage of the group remains the same as the voltage of the individual cell. The capacity is increased in proportion to the number of cells.

Peak Voltage Detection (PVD) – automatic charge termination based on the battery or cell being charged reaching peak voltage. Designed to terminate charge just as over-charge begins

Polarity – Refers to the charges residing at the terminals of a battery.

Potential – energy of an electrical charge, measured by its power to perform work; electro-motive force. Potential energy per unit charge is voltage.

Positive Terminal – The terminal of a battery toward which electrons flow through the external circuit when the cell discharges. See Negative Terminal.

Power – time rate of energy transfer, measured in Watts (W). Product the voltage (V) across a battery or cell and the current (A) through the battery or cell. W = V x A

Primary Battery – A battery made up of primary cells. See Primary Cell.

Primary Cell – A cell designed to produce electric current through an electrochemical reaction that is not efficiently reversible. The cell, when discharged, cannot be efficiently recharged by an electric current. Alkaline, lithium, and zinc air are common types of primary cells.

Rated Capacity – The number of ampere-hours a cell can deliver under specific conditions (rate of discharge, end voltage, temperature); usually the manufacturer’s rating.

Rechargeable – Capable of being recharged; refers to secondary cells or batteries.

Recombination – State in which the gases normally formed within the battery cell during its operation, are recombined to form water.

Reduction – A chemical process that results in the acceptance of electrons by an electrode’s active material.

Reserve Capacity Rating (RC) – Number of minutes a battery at 26.7o C/80o F can be discharged at a 25-amp rate until reaching 10.5 volts (for a 12-volt battery) and maintaining 10.5 volts for a 12 volt battery. The higher the rating, the longer your vehicle can operate should your alternator or fan belt malfunction.

Resistance – The degree to which the flow of electrons is opposed by the material the electrons must pass through. Resistance is expressed in OHMS.

Safety vent – A safety mechanism that is activated when the internal gas pressure rises above a normal level. There are two types: Automatically resealable, and unresealable.

Seal – The structural part of a galvanic cell that restricts the escape of solvent or electrolyte from the cell and limits the ingress of air into the cell (the air may dry out the electrolyte or interfere with the chemical reactions).

Secondary Batteries (Rechargeable) – a battery or cell in which passing electrical current through it in the opposite direction of its discharge can reverse the electrochemical process, recharging the battery or cell. Commonly called rechargeable batteries.

Self-Discharge – Discharge that takes place while the battery is in an open-circuit condition.

Separator – The permeable membrane that allows the passage of ions but prevents electrical contact between the anode and the cathode.

Series Connection – The arrangement of cells in a battery configured by connecting the positive terminal of each successive cell to the negative terminal of the next adjacent cell so that their voltages are cumulative. See Parallel Connection.

Shelf Life – For a dry cell, the period of time (measured from date of manufacture), at a storage temperature of 21 degrees C (69 degrees F), after which the cell retains a specified percentage (usually 90%) of its original energy content.

Short-Circuit – A condition that occurs when a short electrical path is unintentionally created. Batteries can supply hundreds of amps if short-circuited, potentially melting the terminals, and creating sparks.

Short-Circuit Current – That current delivered when a cell is short-circuited (i.e., the positive and negative terminals are directly connected with a low-resistance conductor).

Smart Battery – Battery with internal circuit enabling some communication between the battery and the user. Some batteries feature a capacity indicator only, others offer an external bus to interface with the equipment the battery power and the intelligent charger.

Specific Gravity (Sp. Gr. or SG) – Specific gravity is a measure of the electrolyte concentration in a battery. This measurement is based on the density of the electrolyte compared to the density of water and is typically determined by using a hydrometer (see Hydrometer). The specific gravity of water is 1.00 and the specific gravity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte in a typical fully charged battery is 1.265-1.285. Specific gravity measurements are typically used to determine if the battery is fully charged or if the battery has a bad cell.

Starting-Lighting-Ignition (SLI) Battery – A battery designed to start internal combustion engines and to power the electrical systems in automobiles when the engine is not running. SLI batteries can be used in emergency lighting situations.

Stationary Battery – A secondary battery designed for use in a fixed location.

Storage Battery – An assembly of identical cells in which the electrochemical action is reversible so that the battery may be recharged by passing a current through the cells in the opposite direction to that of discharge. While many non-storage batteries have a reversible process, only those that are economically rechargeable are classified as storage batteries. Synonym: Accumulator; Secondary Battery. See Secondary Cell.

Storage Cell – An electrolytic cell for the generation of electric energy in which the cell after being discharged may be restored to a charged condition by an electric current flowing in a direction opposite the flow of current when the cell discharges. Synonym: Secondary Cell. See Storage Battery.

Stratification – The unequal concentration of electrolyte due to density gradients from the bottom to the top of a cell. This condition is encountered most often in batteries recharged from a deep discharge at constant voltage without a great deal of gassing. Continued deep cycling of a stratified battery will soften the bottoms of the positive plates. Equalization charging is a way to avoid acid stratification.

Tab – The mechanical lug used to connect cells together to form a battery or to connect it to equipment.

Taper Charge – A charge regime delivering moderately high-rate charging current when the battery is at a low state of charge and tapering the current to lower rates as the battery becomes more fully charged.

Terminals – The parts of a battery to which the external electric circuit is connected.

Thermal Fuse – a one-time, non-resettable fuse used to protect against over-current Thermal runaway — A critical condition arising during constant voltage charging in which the current and the temperature of the battery produce a cumulative mutually-reinforcing effect which further increases them and can lead to the destruction of the battery.

Thermal Runaway – A condition whereby a cell on charge or discharge will destroy itself through internal heat generation caused by high overcharge or high rate of discharge or other abusive conditions.

Trickle Charging – A method of recharging in which a secondary cell is either continuously or intermittently connected to a constant-current supply that maintains the cell in fully charged condition.

Vent – A normally sealed mechanism that allows for the controlled escape of gases from within a cell.

Volt – The unit of measurement of electromotive force, or difference of potential, which will cause a current of one ampere to flow through a resistance of one ohm. Named for Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827).

Voltage, cutoff – Voltage at the end of useful discharge. (See Voltage, endpoint.)

Voltage, end-point – Cell voltage below which the connected equipment will not operate, or below which operation is not recommended.

Voltage, nominal – Voltage of a fully charged cell when delivering rated current.

VRLA – Valve-regulated lead-acid battery. AGM and gel are the two types of VRLA batteries. These batteries have no “free” liquid electrolyte and in the cell operate on the oxygen recombination cycle, which is designed to minimize water loss. VRLA batteries feature vents that are one-way burp valves. These low-pressure burp valves prohibit air ingress to the cell while permitting gases to vent from the cell if necessary. The pressure maintained in the battery, though only very slight (<3-psi) is required to facilitate the oxygen generated at the positive plates back into water.

Watt – A measurement of total power. It is amperes multiplied by volts. 120 volt @ 1 amp = 12 volts @ 10 amps.

Watt Hours (Wh) – amount of electric energy that can be withdrawn from a battery or cell under specified conditions. This energy is measured in milli-Watt-hours (mWh). Product of the discharge voltage, discharge rate, and discharge time

Wet Cell – A cell, the electrolyte of which is in liquid form and free to flow and move.

Zinc/Air – A primary battery (non-rechargeable) that was commonly used for applications such as watches and hearing aids. In relation to their physical size, Zinc/Air batteries store more energy per unit of weight (in terms of 220 W h/kg) than any other primary type.